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The Legacy of Jihad

Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims

Ed. by Andrew G. Bostom

Cover of The Legacy of Jihad
Writing in 1991, the late French theologian and philosopher Jacques Ellul observed,
    “In a major encyclopedia, one reads phrases such as: ‘Islam expanded in the eighth or ninth centuries...’; ‘This or that country passed into Muslim hands...’ But care is taken not to say how Islam expanded ... Regarding this expansion, little is said about jihad. And yet it all happened through war!”
The Legacy of Jihad provides a comprehensive, meticulously documented corrective to the genre of ahistorical assessments decried by Ellul. This unique, extensive compilation includes Muslim theological and juridical texts, eyewitness historical accounts by both Muslim and non-Muslim chroniclers, and essays by preeminent scholars analyzing jihad war and the ruling conditions imposed upon the non-Muslim peoples conquered by jihad campaigns.

The Legacy of Jihad reveals how, for well over a millennium, across three continents - Asia, Africa, and Europe - non-Muslims who were vanquished by jihad wars, became forced tributaries (called dhimmi in Arabic), in lieu of being slain. Under the dhimmi religious caste system, non-Muslims were subjected to legal and financial oppression, as well as social isolation.

Extensive primary and secondary source materials, many translated here for the first time into English, are presented, making clear that jihad conquests were brutal, imperialist advances, which spurred waves of Muslims to expropriate a vast expanse of lands and subdue millions of indigenous peoples.

Finally, the book examines how jihad war, as a permanent and uniquely Islamic institution, ultimately regulates the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims to this day. Scholars, educators, and interested lay readers will find this collection an invaluable resource.

Table of Contents

Introductory Quotes
A Note on the Cover Art
Foreword (Ibn Warraq)
p. 13
p. 15
p. 17
p. 20
Part 1: Jihad Conquests and he Imposition of Dhimmitude - A Survey
1. Jihad Conquests and the Imposition of Dhimmitude - A Survey p. 24

Part 2: Jihad in the Qur'an and Hadith
Jihad in the Qur'an
Classical and Modern Qur'anic Commentators on Qur'an 9:29
Jihad in the Hadith
p. 125
p. 127
p. 136

Part 3: Muslim Theologians and Jurists on Jihad: Classical Writings


Muwatta (Malik b. Annas)
[Untitled] (Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani)
Bidayat al-Mudjtahid (Averroes)
The Muqaddimah (Ibn Khaldun)
Legal War (Ibn Qudama)
Al-Siyasa al-shariyya (Ibn Tamiyya)
Kitab al-Kharaj (Abu Yusuf)
Siyar (Shaybani)
The Hidayah (Sheikh Burhanuddin Ali of Marghinan)
Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shaf'i's al-Risala fi us ul al-fiqh (Al-Shaf'i)
Al-Ahkam as-Sultaniyyah (Al-Mawardi)
Fatawa-i Jahandari (Ziauddin Barani)
Kitab al-Waiz fi fiqh madhab al-imam al-Saf'i (Al-Ghazali)
[Untitled] (Sirhindi)
[Untitled] (Sha Wali-Allah)
Shara'i'u 'l-Islam (Al-Hilli)
Jami'-i 'Abbasi: Yakdawrah-i fiqh-i (Muhammad al-Amili)
Risala-yi Sawa'iq al-Yahud (Muhammad Al-Majlisi)
1915 Ottoman Fatwa (Sheikh Shawish)
[Untitled] (Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini)
Jihad in the Cause of God (Sayyid Qutb)
[Untitled] (Yusuf al-Qaradawi)
p. 141
p. 146
p. 147
p. 161
p. 162
p. 165
p. 174
p. 182
p. 184
p. 186

p. 190
p. 196
p. 199

p. 200
p. 202
p. 205
p. 213
p. 216
p. 221
p. 226
p. 230
p. 248

Part 4: Jihad - Overviews from Important Twentieth-Century Scholars



The Jihad or Holy War according to the Malikite School (Edmond Fagnan)
The Holy War according to Ibn Hazm of Cordova (Roger Arnaldez)
The Law of War (Clement Huart)
Jihad (W.R.W. Gardner)
Classification of Persons (Nicolas P. Aghnides)
The Law of War: The Jihad (Majid Khadduri)
Jihad: An Introduction (Rudolph Peters)
War and Peace in Islam (Bassam Tibi)
Jihad and the Ideology of Enslavement (John Ralph Willis)
The Influence of Islam (Jacques Ellul)
p. 251

p. 267

p. 282
p. 293
p. 301
p. 305
p. 320
p. 326
p. 343

p. 354

Part 5: Jihad, Seventh through Eleventh Centuries: Summary Text
Color Insert - Color-Coded Maps: Jihad, Seventh through Eleventh Centuries; Illustrations of the Devshirme Levy, Conquest of Rhodes, and Siege of Budapest, with Descriptions p. 368

Part 6: Jihad in the Near East, Europe, and Asia Minor and on the Indian Subcontinent




Greek Christian and Other Accounts of the Muslim Conquests of the Near East (Demetrios Constantelos)
The Armenian Rebellion of 703 Against the Caliphate (Aram Ter-Ghevondian)
The Days of Razzia and Invasion (C.E. Dufourcq)
Muslims Invade India (K.S. Lal)
Jihad under the Turks and Jihad under the Mughals (K.S. Lal)
Certain Phases of he Conquest of the Balkan Peoples by the Turks (Dimitar Angelov)
A Modern Jihad Genocide (Andrew G. Bostom)
Textbook Jihad in Egypt (Andrew G. Bostom)
p. 383

p. 405

p. 419
p. 433
p. 456

p. 462

p. 518
p. 525

Part 7: Jihad Slavery



The Origins of the Muslim Slave System (K.S. Lal)
Slave-Taking During Muslim Rule (K.S. Lal)
Enslavement of Hindus by Arab and Turkish Invaders (K.S. Lal)
The Impact of Devshirme on Greek Society (Vasiliki Papoulia)
The Role of Slaves in Fifteenth-Century Turkish Romania (M.-M. Alexandrescu-Dersca Bulgaru)
My Career Redeeming Slaves (John Eibner)
p. 529
p. 535
p. 549

p. 555

p. 566

p. 573

Part 8: Muslim and non-Muslim Chronicles and Eyewitness Accounts of Jihad Campaigns
51. Jihad Campaigns in the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Asia Minor, Georgia, and Persia - Seventh through Seventeenth Centuries
A. Egypt, Palestine, Tripolitania (640-646)
B. Iraq
C. Iraq, Syria, and Palestine
D. Armenia (642)
E. Cyprus, the Greek Islands, and Anatolia (649-654)
F. Cilicia and Cesarea of Cappadocia (650)
G. Cappadocia, under the Caliphs Sulayman and Umar II (715-720)
H. Spain and France (793-860)
I. Anatolia - The Taking of Amorium (838)
J. Armenia - Under the Caliph al-Mutawakkil (847-861)
K. sicily and Italy (835-851 nd 884)
L. Jihad Capture and Pillage of Thessaloniki in 904 CE
M. Mesopotemia - Causes of he Invasions by the Turks (Eleventh Century)
N. Mespotemia - Pillage of Melitene (Malatia) (1057)
O. Armenia, Anatolia, and Georgia (Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries)
P. Syria and Palestine (Eleventh Century)
Q. Jihad Destruction fo Edessa in 1144-1146 CE
R. Jihad in North Africa and Spain under the Almohads (Mid-Twelfth Century)
S. Jihad Conquest of Thessaloniki 91430 CE)
T. Jihad Conquest of Constantinople (1453 CE)
U. Jihad Conquest of Methone (Greece) (1499)
V. Jihad Campaigns in Georgia of Safavid Ruler Shah Tahmasp (d. 1576) (1540, 1546, 1551, and 1553 CE)
W. Deportation of the Population of Armenia by Shah Abbas I (1604)
p. 589
52. Jihad on the Indian Subcontinent - Seventh through Twentieth Centuries
A. Campaigns in Sind (711-712 CE) led by Muhammad bin Qasim
B. Jihad by Yaqub Ibn Layth against the Hindu Kingdom of Kabul (870 CE)
C. Campaigns of Subuktigin of Ghazni (977-997 CE)
D. Mahmud of Ghazni's Conquest of Thanesar, Kanauj, and Sirsawa, near Saharanpur (1018-1019 CE)
E. An Almost Contemporary Account of Mahmud's Invasions of India
F. The Conquest of Somnat Mahmud bin Subuktigin (1025 CE)
G. The Conquest of Ajmer by Muhammad Ghauri (1192 CE)
H. Jihad Campaigns of Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316 CE)
I. Muslim Devastation of Buddhist Temples and Plight of the Buddhist Community in Northern India (Bihar) (Early Thirteenth Century CE)
J. Jihad Campaigns at the End of the Thirteenth Century and First Three decades of the Fourteenth Century, from the Hindu Chronicle Kanhadade Prabandha
K. Brutalilty of Sultan of Ma'bar (Ghayasuddin) Witnessed by Ibn Battuta (C. 1345 CE)
L. The Jihad Campaigns of Amir Timur (1397-1399 CE)
M. Jihad Campaigns of Babur (1519-1530 CE)
N. Jihad against Vijayanagara by Sultan Adil Shahi of Bijapur and His Allies (1565 CE)
O. Jihad Campaigns of Ahmad Shah Abdali [Durrani] (1757, 1760, and 1761 CE)
P. Jihad in Southern India (the Malabar District): The Moplah “Rebellion” (1921)
p. 628
Jihad Slavery in the Sudan - Late Nineteenth Century
Ottoman Massacres of the Bulgarians in 1876
Jihad Genocide of the Armenians by the Ottoman Turks
A. Two Accounts of the Massacres of 1894-1896
B. Two Eyewitness Accounts of the Plight of the Armenians during World War I
p. 660
p. 664
p. 667
Appendix A.Towns and Villages Ravaged during the Seljuk-Ottoman Jihad in Asia Minor, Eleventh through Fifteenth Centurieseventh through Twentieth Centuriesp. 675
Appendix B.Jihad Slave Raids (Razzias) by the Tatars, Mid-Fifteenth through Late Seventeenth Centuriesp. 679
Appendix C.Muslim Jurists, Theologians, and Historiansp. 682
Appendix D.Non-Muslim Historians, Authors, and Islamic Scholardsp. 689
Major Contributors
Index of Persons, Peoples, Tribes, and Institutions
Index of Places
p. 692
p. 697
p. 723
p. 745

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